Food Safety Terms You Should Know
Abrasive Cleaner
Cleaners containing a scouring agent that helps scrub off hard-to-remove soils such as baked-on food. They may scratch some surfaces, if not used properly.
Accredited Program
(1) "Accredited program" means a food protection manager certification program that has been evaluated and listed by an accrediting agency as conforming to national standards for organizations that certify individuals.
 (2) "Accredited program" refers to the certification process and is a designation based upon an independent evaluation of factors such as the sponsor's mission; organizational structure; staff resources; revenue sources; policies; public information regarding program scope, eligibility requirements, re-certification, discipline and grievance procedures; and test development and administration. 
(3) "Accredited program" does not refer to training functions or educational programs. 

Acid Cleaner 

Acid cleaners (pH below 7.0) are used on mineral deposits and other soils that alkaline cleaners can’t remove, such as scale, rust, and tarnish. These cleaners may damage surfaces if not used properly.

Level of acid in food. Food with a pH range from 4.6 to 7.5 (slightly acidic) is called potentially hazardous food. See High-acid food.

Active Managerial Control
Proactive approach for addressing the 5 most common risk factors responsible for foodborne illness as identified by the CDC. By continuously monitoring and verifying procedures responsible for preventing these risks, establishments can ensure they are being controlled.

(1) "Food additive" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, § 201(s) and 21 CFR 170.3(e)(1). 
(2) "Color additive" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, § 201(t) and 21 CFR 70.3(f). 
"Adulterated" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, § 402. 
"Approved" means acceptable to the REGULATORY AUTHORITY based on a determination of conformity with principles, practices, and generally recognized standards that protect public health. 

Air Curtains
Ventilation unit that blows a steady stream of air across an open door (or outward) to discourage flying insects from entering. Also called air doors or fly fans.

Air Gap
Air space used to separate a water-supply outlet from any potentially contaminated source. The air space between the floor drain and the drain pipe of a sink is an example. An air gap is the only completely reliable method for preventing backflow.

Ambient Temperature/ Air Temperature
Used to describe the temperature surrounding food, whether in a transportation vehicle, a container, or storage area. 

The alkaline quality of a food. An alkaline substance has a pH above 7.0. Most types of food are not alkaline.

A substance, usually a protein, that is seen as foreign by the body, which then produces antibodies in response.

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)
Illness caused by the ingestion of shellfish, including clams, mussels, oysters, and scallops that have filtered toxic marine algae from the water. The toxin involved in the illness associated with ASP is domoic acid, which cannot be destroyed through cooking or freezing. It is critical to purchase shellfish from reputable, approved suppliers.

Anisakis simplex: An anisakid nematode (roundworm) that has been implicated in human infections caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. Illness caused by the parasite has two different forms: invasive or noninvasive. Symptoms vary by type of illness. To prevent illness, cook food, particularly herring, cod, halibut, mackerel and Pacific salmon to minimum internal temperatures or if it will be served raw, be sure seafood is purchased from approved, reputable suppliers.

A key element of training; practice by the learner.

Approved Suppliers
Reputable and reliable suppliers whose products and practices meet federal and local standards. Reputable suppliers deliver correctly packaged food in adequately refrigerated delivery trucks, train their employees in food safety practices, adjust delivery schedules to meet your needs, and allow you to inspect their delivery vehicles and production facilities.

Aseptically Packaged
A method of food packaging where the food has been hermetically sealed to prevent contamination from disease-causing microorganisms.
(1)"Asymptomatic" means without obvious symptoms; not showing or producing indications of a disease or other medical condition, such as an individual infected with a pathogen but not exhibiting or producing any signs or symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, or jaundice. 
(2) "Asymptomatic" includes not showing symptoms because symptoms have resolved or subsided, or because symptoms never manifested. 

aw means water activity which is a measure of the free moisture in a FOOD, is the quotient of the water vapor pressure of the substance divided by the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature, and is indicated by the symbol AW. 

Bacillus Cereus
Bacteria, which cause 2 distinct illnesses: a diarrheal type of illness and a vomiting (emetic) type of illness. A wide variety of food including cooked corn, potatoes, and other vegetables as well as meat products have been associated with diarrheal-type food poisoning. The vomiting-type outbreaks have generally been associated with cooked rice dishes, such as fried rice and rice pudding.

Type of cross-connection that can occur in a potable water system. Backflow is the unwanted reverse flow of contaminated water through a cross-connection into a potable water system. It can occur whenever the pressure in the potable water supply drops below the pressure of the contaminated supply. See Air gap.

Common foodborne microbial contaminant. Bacteria are living, single-celled microorganisms that can cause food spoilage and illness. Some form spores, which can survive freezing and very high temperatures. Bacteria that cause disease are pathogenic. See Pathogens; Pathogenic bacteria.

Bacterial Growth
Bacteria reproduce (or grow) by splitting into 2. When conditions are favorable, bacteria can grow and multiply very rapidly, doubling the population as often as every 20 minutes, in some cases. Three phases of bacterial growth are the lag phase (slow growth), log phase (rapid growth), stationary phase (equilibrium between growth and die-off), and death phase (decrease in population). See FAT TOM.
An embryo inside a fertile EGG that has been incubated for a period sufficient for the embryo to reach a specific stage of development after which it is removed from incubation before hatching. 

Behavioral Objectives
Specific actions a learner will be able to perform upon completion of training.

A liquid for drinking, including water. 

Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometer
A common type of thermometer that measures temperature through a metal probe with a sensor toward the end. It is easy to recalibrate. These thermometers have scales measuring temperatures from 0° to 220°F (-18° to 104°C); accurate to within +/-2°F (+/-1°C), and are useful for measuring the temperature of many food items.

Biological Contaminant
Microbial contaminant that may cause foodborne illness. These contaminants include bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and biological toxins. 

Biological Contamination
Includes bacteria and the toxins they produce—viruses, parasites, and fish and plant toxins. Biological
contamination from microorganisms or microbial contamination is the leading cause of foodborne illness throughout the world. See
Contaminants, contamination; Hazards, biological. Biological toxins: Type of biological contamination that causes foodborne illness. Many biological poisons, or toxins, occur naturally (in some fish, plants, mushrooms); others are caused by the diets of certain animals. Heating or freezing cannot destroy most toxins.

Blast Chiller
Piece of equipment used to cool food quickly. Blast chillers can move food through the temperature danger zone quickly. Most cool food from 135°F to 37°F (57°C to 3°C) within 90 minutes.

Bodily Fluids
Fluid secretions of the human body, such as mucus, saliva, feces, perspiration, and oily secretions in skin and hair.
Microorganisms in those fluids can be transmitted to customers via food if employees do not practice good personal hygiene.

Boiling-point Method 
Method of calibrating a thermometer by submerging the thermometer's sensor in boiling water and adjusting the readout until the thermometer reads 212°F (100°C) at sea level.

Bottled Drinking Water
Water that is SEALED in bottles, packages, or other containers and offered for sale for human consumption, including bottled mineral water. 

Severe type of foodborne illness caused by the ingestion of food containing the potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum.

Process of ensuring that a thermometer gives accurate readings by adjusting it to a known standard, such as the freezing point or boiling point of water.

Campylobacter jejuni:
Bacteria that causes the illness Campylobacteriosis. It is commonly associated with poultry. It is sometimes known to contaminate water. To reduce the risk of illness from this bacteria, it is important to cook food to minimum cooking temperatures, especially poultry, and prevent cross-contamination.

 Also called wall-mounted. Equipment attached to the wall with a bracket to allow for easier cleaning behind and underneath it.


An animal, insect, or human that carries a pathogenic microorganism, often without showing symptoms of the illness. These carriers may infect others with the disease, yet never become ill themselves. The carrier state cannot be cured with antibiotic treatment. Carriers of foodborne disease may not work as foodhandlers.
A tubular container for sausage products made of either natural or artificial (synthetic) material. 

Establishments mainly engaged in providing food for single event-based foodservice. These establishments often have equipment and vehicles to transport and hold meals and snacks to events and/or prepare food at an off-premise site. Banquet halls with catering staffs are included in this industry.

International temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0° and the boiling point of water as 100° under normal atmospheric pressure—abbreviation C.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Agencies of the U.S. Public Health Service that investigate outbreaks of foodborne illness, study the causes and control of disease, and publish statistical data.

Ceramic Tile
Hard, nonresilient, nonporous, porcelain-type tile, installed with grout, commonly used for floors and walls in establishments.
Certification Number 
A unique combination of letters and numbers assigned by a SHELLFISH CONTROL AUTHORITY to a MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH DEALER according to the provisions of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. 

Chemical Agent
Chemical agents often used in establishments include cleaning products, polishes, lubricants, sanitizing chemicals, and pesticides. All can be dangerous to customers and employees if not properly used or stored.

Chemical Bait
Type of bait that contains an attractant to draw pests, such as insects or rodents, to it, as well as a poison that will kill the pest when they eat it. Chemical bait is often preferred over sprays or powders because the facility does not have to be prepared for treatment and employees do not have to be evacuated.

Chemical Contaminant
Chemical substance that can cause a foodborne illness. Food can become contaminated by a variety of chemical 

Chemical Contamination
One type of contamination that causes foodborne illness. Food can become contaminated by chemical substances normally found in establishments, including cleaning chemicals; utensils and equipment that leach toxic metals into food; pesticides; and food additives and food preservatives, even those generally recognized as safe (GRAS), if not used correctly. 

Chemical Sanitizing
Using an approved chemical solution to reduce the number of microorganisms on a clean surface to safe levels. Items can be sanitized by immersing them in a specific concentration of sanitizing solution for a required period of time, or by rinsing, swabbing, or spraying the items with a specific concentration of sanitizing solution. Common sanitizing chemicals are chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonia. See Heat sanitizing.

Most commonly used sanitizer due to its low cost and effectiveness. Chlorine kills a wide range of microorganisms. However, soil can quickly inactivate chlorine solutions, and they can be corrosive to some metals when used improperly.

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
Foodborne illness that occurs when a person eats fish that has consumed the ciguatoxin. This toxin accumulates in the fish when they consume smaller fish that have eaten toxic algae. Ciguatoxin is commonly associated with predatory reef fish from the Pacific Ocean, western Indian Ocean, and the Caribbean sea including barracuda, grouper, jacks, and snapper.


A toxin found in certain marine algae, commonly associated with predatory reef fish. The toxin accumulates in these fish when they consume smaller fish that have eaten the toxic algae. Ciguatera fish poisoning is the illness that results when these fish are eaten. See Ciguatera fish poisoning.

Free of visible soil; refers only to outward appearance of a surface. See Soil.

Cleaned in Place (CIP)
Clearning by the circulation or flowing by mechanical means through a piping system of a detergent solution, water rinse, and SANITIZING solution onto or over EQUIPMENT surfaces that require cleaning, such as the method used, in part, to clean and SANITIZE a frozen dessert machine. (2) "CIP" does not include the cleaning of EQUIPMENT such as band saws, slicers, or mixers that are subjected to in-place manual cleaning without the use of a CIP system. 

Process of removing visible food and other types of soil from a surface. Surfaces must first be cleaned and rinsed before being sanitized.

Cleaning Agent
Chemical compounds that remove food, soil, rust, stains, minerals, or other deposits from surfaces.

Clostridium Botulinum
Spore-forming bacteria that can be found in almost any food, but is commonly associated with produce grown in the soil, such as onions, potatoes, and carrots. This type of bacteria does not grow well in refrigerated or highly acidic food, nor food with low water activity. It grows without oxygen and can produce a deadly neurotoxin when food is time-temperature abused. Proper holding, cooling, and reheating food prevents the growth of the bacteria.

Clostridium Perfringens

A spore-forming bacteria that is widely distributed in the environment and frequently occurs in the intestines of humans and many domestic and feral animals. Spores of the organism persist in soil, sediments, and areas subject to human- or animal-fecal pollution. In most instances, the actual cause of illness by Clostridium perfringens is temperature abuse of prepared food. Small numbers of the organisms are often present after cooking and multiply to foodborne-illness levels during improper cooling and storage of prepared food. Meat, meat products, and gravy are the types of food most frequently implicated.

Cold-holding Equipment
Equipment specifically designed to keep cold food at 41°F (5°C) or lower.

Cold Paddle
Utensils that can be filled with water and frozen. Stirring food products with a cold paddle chills food very quickly. See Ice paddle.

(1) To combine SHELLSTOCK harvested on different days or from different growing areas as identified on the tag or label, or (2) To combine SHUCKED SHELLFISH from containers with different container codes or different shucking dates. 

(1) "Comminuted" means reduced in size by methods including chopping, flaking, grinding, or mincing. 
(2) "Comminuted" includes FISH or MEAT products that are reduced in size and restructured or reformulated such as gefilte FISH, gyros, ground beef, and sausage; and a mixture of 2 or more types of MEAT that have been reduced in size and combined, such as sausages made from 2 or more MEATS. 

Conditional Employee 
A potential FOOD EMPLOYEE to whom a job offer is made, conditional on responses to subsequent medical questions or examinations designed to identify potential FOOD EMPLOYEES who may be suffering from a disease that can be transmitted through FOOD and done in compliance with Title 1 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. 

Confirmed Outbreak 
A FOODBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK in which laboratory analysis of appropriate specimens identifies a causative agent and epidemiological analysis implicates the FOOD as the source of the illness. 

A PERSON who is a member of the public, takes possession of FOOD, is not functioning in the capacity of an operator of a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT or FOOD PROCESSING PLANT, and does not offer the FOOD for resale. 

Contact Spray
Liquid or powder insecticide that must come into direct contact with insects to kill them.

Presence of harmful substances in food.

The introduction of harmful substances into food. Some contamination/food safety hazards occur naturally, while others are introduced by humans or the environment.  See Hazard.

Control Measures
Steps taken, usually by a pest control operator (PCO), to control or eliminate pests that have infested a building. These include chemical and nonchemical treatment methods.

Control Point
Any step in the flow of food where a physical, chemical, or biological hazard can be controlled. See HACCP (Hazard AnalysisCritical Control Point).

Cooling Coils
The coils in a refrigerator or freezer that carry refrigerant. The coils should be kept clean and condensation from the coils should not be allowed to drip on food.

Core Item
(1) "Core item" means a provision in this Code that is not designated as a PRIORITY ITEM or a PRIORITY FOUNDATION ITEM. 
(2) "Core item" includes an item that usually relates to general sanitation, operational controls, sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), facilities or structures, equipment design, or general maintenance. 

Corrective Action
Predetermined action taken when food doesn't meet a critical limit. For example, when the temperature of a hot food falls below 135°F (57°C), the proper corrective action is to reheat the food to 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds within 2 hours. See Critical limit; HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point).

Corrosion-resistant Material 
A material that maintains acceptable surface cleanability characteristics under prolonged influence of the FOOD to be contacted, the normal use of cleaning compounds and SANITIZING solutions, and other conditions of the use environment. 

Counter-mounted Equipment 
EQUIPMENT that is not portable and is designed to be mounted off the floor on a table, counter, or shelf. 

Curved, sealed edge between the floor and wall that makes cleaning easier and eliminates hiding places for insects.
substances normally found in restaurant and foodservice establishments, including toxic metals, pesticides, cleaning products, sanitizers, and lubricants.
Critical Control Point (CCP)
A point or procedure in a specific FOOD system where loss of control may result in an unacceptable health RISK. During processing of food identified hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels. See HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point).

Critical Limit
The maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical parameter must be controlled at a CRITICAL CONTROL POINT to minimize the RISK that the identified FOOD safety HAZARD may occur. 

Cut leafy greens means fresh leafy greens whose leaves have been cut, shredded, sliced, chopped, or torn. The term “leafy greens” includes iceberg lettuce, romaine lettuce, leaf lettuce, butter lettuce, baby leaf lettuce (i.e., immature lettuce or leafy greens), escarole, endive, spring mix, spinach, cabbage, kale, arugula and chard. The term “leafy greens” does not include herbs such as cilantro or parsley. 

Dealer means a PERSON who is authorized by a SHELLFISH CONTROL AUTHORITY for the activities of SHELLSTOCK shipper, shucker-packer, repacker, reshipper, or depuration processor of MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH according to the provisions of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. 

Disclosure means a written statement that clearly identifies the animal-derived FOODS which are, or can be ordered, raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens, or items that contain an ingredient that is raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens. 

Drinking Water
(1) "Drinking water" means water that meets criteria as specified in 40 CFR 141 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. 
(2) "Drinking water" is traditionally known as "potable water." 
(3) "Drinking water" includes the term "water" except where the term used connotes that the water is not potable, such as "boiler water," "mop water," "rainwater," "wastewater," and "nondrinking" water. 

Dry storage area means a room or area designated for the storage of PACKAGED or containerized bulk FOOD that is not TIME/TEMPERATURE CONTROL FOR SAFETY FOOD and dry goods such as SINGLE-SERVICE items. 

Easily Cleanable
(1) "Easily cleanable" means a characteristic of a surface that: (a) Allows effective removal of soil by normal cleaning methods; (b) Is dependent on the material, design, construction, and installation of the surface; and (c) Varies with the likelihood of the surface's role in introducing pathogenic or toxigenic agents or other contaminants into FOOD based on the surface's APPROVED placement, purpose, and use. 
(2) "Easily cleanable" includes a tiered application of the criteria that qualify the surface as EASILY CLEANABLE as specified in Subparagraph (1) of this definition to different situations in which varying degrees of cleanability are required such as: (a) The appropriateness of stainless steel for a FOOD preparation surface as opposed to the lack of need for stainless steel to be used for floors or for tables used for CONSUMER dining; or (b) The need for a different degree of cleanability for a utilitarian attachment or accessory in the kitchen as opposed to a decorative attachment or accessory in the CONSUMER dining area. 

Easily movable means: (1) Portable; mounted on casters, gliders, or rollers; or provided with a mechanical means to safely tilt a unit of EQUIPMENT for cleaning; and (2) Having no utility connection, a utility connection that disconnects quickly, or a flexible utility connection line of sufficient length to allow the EQUIPMENT to be moved for cleaning of the EQUIPMENT and adjacent area. 

(1) "Egg" means the shell EGG of avian species such as chicken, duck, goose, guinea, quail, RATITES or turkey. 
(2) "Egg" does not include: (a) A BALUT; (b) The egg of reptile species such as alligator; or (c) An EGG PRODUCT. 

Egg Product
(1) "Egg Product" means all, or a portion of, the contents found inside EGGS separated from the shell and pasteurized in a FOOD PROCESSING PLANT, with or without added ingredients, intended for human consumption, such as dried, frozen or liquid eggs. 
(2) "Egg Product" does not include FOOD which contains EGGS only in a relatively small proportion such as cake mixes. "Employee" means the PERMIT HOLDER, PERSON IN CHARGE, FOOD EMPLOYEE, PERSON having supervisory or management duties, PERSON on the payroll, family member, volunteer, PERSON performing work under contractual agreement, or other PERSON working in a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT. 

EPA means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 

(1) "Equipment" means an article that is used in the operation of a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT such as a freezer, grinder, hood, ice maker, MEAT block, mixer, oven, reach-in refrigerator, scale, sink, slicer, stove, table, TEMPERATURE MEASURING DEVICE for ambient air, VENDING MACHINE, or WAREWASHING machine. 
(2) "Equipment" does not include apparatuses used for handling or storing large quantities of PACKAGED FOODS that are received from a supplier in a cased or overwrapped lot, such as hand trucks, forklifts, dollies, pallets, racks, and skids. "Exclude" means to prevent a PERSON from working as an EMPLOYEE in a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT or entering a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT as an EMPLOYEE. "FDA" means the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 

(1) "Fish" means fresh or saltwater finfish, crustaceans and other forms of aquatic life (including alligator, frog, aquatic turtle, jellyfish, sea cucumber, and sea urchin and the roe of such animals) other than birds or mammals, and all mollusks, if such animal life is intended for human consumption. 
(2) "Fish" includes an edible human FOOD product derived in whole or in part from FISH, including FISH that have been processed in any manner. 

Food means a raw, cooked, or processed edible substance, ice, BEVERAGE, or ingredient used or intended for use or for sale in whole or in part for human consumption, or chewing gum. 

Foodborne disease outbreak means the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common FOOD. 

Food-contact surface means: (1) A surface of EQUIPMENT or a UTENSIL with which FOOD normally comes into contact; or (2) A surface of EQUIPMENT or a UTENSIL from which FOOD may drain, drip, or splash: (a) Into a FOOD, or (b) Onto a surface normally in contact with FOOD. 

Food employee means an individual working with UNPACKAGED FOOD, FOOD EQUIPMENT or UTENSILS, or FOOD-CONTACT SURFACES. 

Food Establishment
(1) "Food establishment" means an operation that: (a) stores, prepares, packages, serves, vends food directly to the consumer, or otherwise provides FOOD for human consumption such as a restaurant; satellite or catered feeding location; catering operation if the operation provides FOOD directly to a CONSUMER or to a conveyance used to transport people; market; vending location; conveyance used to transport people; institution; or FOOD bank; and (b) relinquishes possession of FOOD to a CONSUMER directly, or indirectly through a delivery service such as home delivery of grocery orders or restaurant takeout orders, or delivery service that is provided by common carriers. 
(2) "Food establishment" includes: (a) An element of the operation such as a transportation vehicle or a central preparation facility that supplies a vending location or satellite feeding location unless the vending or feeding location is permitted by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY; and (b) An operation that is conducted in a mobile, stationary, temporary, or permanent facility or location; where consumption is on or off the PREMISES; and regardless of whether there is a charge for the FOOD. 
(3) "Food establishment" does not include: (a) An establishment that offers only prePACKAGED FOODS that are not TIME/TEMPERATURE CONTROL FOR SAFETY FOODS; (b) A produce stand that only offers whole, uncut fresh fruits and vegetables; (c) A FOOD PROCESSING PLANT; including those that are located on the PREMISES of a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT (d) A kitchen in a private home if only FOOD that is not TIME/TEMPERATURE CONTROL FOR SAFETY FOOD, is prepared for sale or service at a function such as a religious or charitable organization’s bake sale if allowed by LAW and if the CONSUMER is informed by a clearly visible placard at the sales or service location that the FOOD is prepared in a kitchen that is not subject to regulation and inspection by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY; 9 (e) An area where FOOD that is prepared as specified in Subparagraph (3)(d) of this definition is sold or offered for human consumption; (f) A kitchen in a private home, such as a small family day-care provider; or a bed-and-breakfast operation that prepares and offers FOOD to guests if the home is owner occupied, the number of available guest bedrooms does not exceed 6, breakfast is the only meal offered, the number of guests served does not exceed 18, and the CONSUMER is informed by statements contained in published advertisements, mailed brochures, and placards posted at the registration area that the FOOD is prepared in a kitchen that is not regulated and inspected by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY; or (g) A private home that receives catered or home-delivered FOOD. 

Food Processing Plant
(1) "Food processing plant" means a commercial operation that manufactures, packages, labels, or stores FOOD for human consumption, and provides FOOD for sale or distribution to other business entities such as FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS or FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS. 
(2) "Food processing plant" does not include a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT. 

Game Animal
(1) "Game animal" means an animal, the products of which are FOOD, that is not classified as livestock, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine in 9 CFR 301.2 Definitions, or as Poultry, or FISH. 
(2) "Game animal" includes mammals such as reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, water buffalo, bison, rabbit, squirrel, opossum, raccoon, nutria, or muskrat, and nonaquatic reptiles such as land snakes.
(3) "Game animal" does not include RATITES. "General use pesticide" means a pesticide that is not classified by EPA for restricted use as specified in 40 CFR 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. 

Grade A standards means the requirements of the United States Public Health Service/FDA 

Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance with which certain fluid and dry milk and milk products comply. 

HACCP plan means a written document that delineates the formal procedures for following the HAZARD Analysis and CRITICAL CONTROL POINT principles developed by The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. 

Handwashing Sink
(1) "Handwashing sink" means a lavatory, a basin or vessel for washing, a wash basin, or a PLUMBING FIXTURE especially placed for use in personal hygiene and designed for the washing of the hands. 
 (2) "Handwashing sink" includes an automatic handwashing facility. 

Hazard means a biological, chemical, or physical property that may cause an unacceptable CONSUMER health RISK. "Health practitioner" means a physician licensed to practice medicine, or if allowed by LAW, a nurse practitioner, physician assistant, or similar medical professional. 

Hermetically sealed container means a container that is designed and intended to be secure against the entry of microorganisms and, in the case of low acid canned FOODS, to maintain the commercial sterility of its contents after processing. 

Highly susceptible population or High risk population means PERSONS who are more likely than other people in the general population to experience foodborne disease because they are: (1) Immunocompromised; preschool age children, or older adults; and (2) Obtaining FOOD at a facility that provides services such as custodial care, health care, or assisted living, such as a child or adult day care center, kidney dialysis center, hospital or nursing home, or nutritional or socialization services such as a senior center. 

Imminent health hazard means a significant threat or danger to health that is considered to exist when there is evidence sufficient to show that a product, practice, circumstance, or event creates a situation that requires immediate correction or cessation of operation to prevent injury based on: (1) The number of potential injuries, and (2) The nature, severity, and duration of the anticipated injury. 

Injected means manipulating MEAT to which a solution has been introduced into its interior by processes that are referred to as "injecting," “pump marinating,” or "stitch pumping”. 

(1) "Juice" means the aqueous liquid expressed or extracted from one or more fruits or vegetables, purées of the edible portions of one or more fruits or vegetables, or any concentrates of such liquid or purée. 
(2) "Juice" does not include, for purposes of HACCP, liquids, purées, or concentrates that are not used as BEVERAGES or ingredients of BEVERAGES. "Kitchenware" means FOOD preparation and storage UTENSILS. 

Law means applicable local, state, and federal statutes, regulations, and ordinances. 

Linens means fabric items such as cloth hampers, cloth napkins, table cloths, wiping cloths, and work garments including cloth gloves. 

Major Food Allergen
(1) "Major food allergen" means: (a) Milk, EGG, FISH (such as bass, flounder, cod, and including crustacean shellfish such as crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (such as almonds, pecans, or walnuts), wheat, peanuts, and soybeans; or (b) A FOOD ingredient that contains protein derived from a FOOD, as specified in Subparagraph (1)(a) of this definition. 
(2) "Major food allergen" does not include: (a) Any highly refined oil derived from a FOOD specified in Subparagraph (1)(a) of this definition and any ingredient derived from such highly refined oil; or (b) Any ingredient that is exempt under the petition or notification process specified in the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-282). 

Meat means the flesh of animals used as FOOD including the dressed flesh of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats and other edible animals, except FISH, POULTRY, and wild GAME ANIMALS as specified under Subparagraphs 3-201.17(A)(3) and (4). 

Mechanically Tenderized
(1) "Mechanically tenderized" means manipulating meat with deep penetration by processes which may be referred to as “blade tenderizing,” “jaccarding,” “pinning,” “needling,” or using blades, pins, needles or any mechanical device. 
(2) "Mechanically tenderized" does not include processes by which solutions are INJECTED into meat. "mg/L" means milligrams per liter, which is the metric equivalent of parts per million (ppm). 

Molluscan shellfish means any edible species of fresh or frozen oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops or edible portions thereof, except when the scallop product consists only of the shucked adductor muscle. 

Non-Continuous Cooking
(1) "Non-continuous cooking" means the cooking of FOOD in a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT using a process in which the initial heating of the FOOD is intentionally halted so that it may be cooled and held for complete cooking at a later time prior to sale or service. 
(2) "Non-continuous cooking" does not include cooking procedures that only involve temporarily interrupting or slowing an otherwise continuous cooking process. 

(1) "Packaged" means bottled, canned, cartoned, bagged, or wrapped, whether PACKAGED in a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT or a FOOD PROCESSING PLANT. 
(2) "Packaged" does not include wrapped or placed in a carry-out container to protect the FOOD during service or delivery to the CONSUMER, by a FOOD EMPLOYEE, upon CONSUMER request. 

Permit means the document issued by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY that authorizes a PERSON to operate a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT. 

Permit holder means the entity that: (1) Is legally responsible for the operation of the FOOD ESTABLISHMENT such as the owner, the owner's agent, or other PERSON; and (2) Possesses a valid PERMIT to operate a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT. 13 Values between 0 and 7 indicate acidity and values between 7 and 14 indicate alkalinity. The value for pure distilled water is 7, which is considered neutral. "Person" means an association, a corporation, individual, partnership, other legal entity, government, or governmental subdivision or agency. 

Person in charge means the individual present at a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT who is responsible for the operation at the time of inspection. 

Personal Care Items
(1) "Personal care items" means items or substances that may be poisonous, toxic, or a source of contamination and are used to maintain or enhance a PERSON'S health, hygiene, or appearance. 
(2) "Personal care items" include items such as medicines; first aid supplies; and other items such as cosmetics, and toiletries such as toothpaste and mouthwash. 

pH means the symbol for the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, which is a measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. 

Physical facilities means the structure and interior surfaces of a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT including accessories such as soap and towel dispensers and attachments such as light fixtures and heating or air conditioning system vents. 

Plumbing fixture means a receptacle or device that: (1) Is permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution system of the PREMISES and demands a supply of water from the system; or (2) Discharges used water, waste materials, or SEWAGE directly or indirectly to the drainage system of the PREMISES. 

Plumbing system means the water supply and distribution pipes; PLUMBING FIXTURES and traps; soil, waste, and vent pipes; sanitary and storm sewers and building drains, including their respective connections, devices, and appurtenances within the PREMISES; and water-treating EQUIPMENT. 

Poisonous or toxic materials means substances that are not intended for ingestion and are included in 4 categories: (1) Cleaners and SANITIZERS, which include cleaning and SANITIZING agents and agents such as caustics, acids, drying agents, polishes, and other chemicals; (2) Pesticides, except SANITIZERS, which include substances such as insecticides and rodenticides; (3) Substances necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment such as nonfood grade lubricants and PERSONAL CARE ITEMS that may be deleterious to health; and (4) Substances that are not necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment and are on the PREMISES for retail sale, such as petroleum products and paints. 

Poultry means: (1) Any domesticated bird (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, guineas, RATITES, or squabs), whether live or dead, as defined in 9 CFR 381.1 Poultry Products Inspection Regulations Definitions, Poultry; and (2) Any migratory waterfowl or game bird, pheasant, partridge, quail, grouse, or pigeon, whether live or dead, as defined in 9 CFR 362.1 Voluntary Poultry Inspection Regulations, Definitions. 

Premises means: (1) The PHYSICAL FACILITY, its contents, and the contiguous land or property under the control of the PERMIT HOLDER; or (2) The PHYSICAL FACILITY, its contents, and the land or property not described in Subparagraph (1) of this definition if its facilities and contents are under the control of the PERMIT HOLDER and may impact FOOD ESTABLISHMENT personnel, facilities, or operations, and a FOOD ESTABLISHMENT is only one component of a larger operation such as a health care facility, hotel, motel, school, recreational camp, or prison. 

Primal cut means a basic major cut into which carcasses and sides of MEAT are separated, such as a beef round, pork loin, lamb flank, or veal breast. 

Priority Item
(1) "Priority item" means a provision in this Code whose application contributes directly to the elimination, prevention or reduction to an acceptable level, hazards associated with foodborne illness or injury and there is no other provision that more directly controls the hazard. 
(2) "Priority item" includes items with a quantifiable measure to show control of hazards such as cooking, reheating, cooling, handwashing; and 
(3) "Priority item" is an item that is denoted in this Code with a superscript P-P. 

Priority Foundation Item
(1) "Priority foundation item" means a provision in this Code whose application supports, facilitates or enables one or more PRIORITY ITEMS. 
(2) "Priority foundation item" includes an item that requires the purposeful incorporation of specific actions, equipment or procedures by industry management to attain control of risk factors that contribute to foodborne illness or injury such as personnel training, infrastructure or necessary equipment, HACCP plans, documentation or record keeping, and labeling; and 
(3) "Priority foundation item" is an item that is denoted in this Code with a superscript Pf - Pf . 

Public water system has the meaning stated in 40 CFR 141 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. "Ratite" means a flightless bird such as an emu, ostrich, or rhea. 

Ready-to-Eat Food
(1) "Ready-to-eat food" means FOOD that: (a) Is in a form that is edible without additional preparation to achieve FOOD safety, as specified under one of the following: ¶ 3-401.11(A) or (B), § 3-401.12, or § 3-402.11, or as specified in ¶ 3-401.11(C); or (b) Is a raw or partially cooked animal FOOD and the consumer is advised as specified in Subparagraphs 3-401.11(D)(1) and (3); or (c) Is prepared in accordance with a variance that is granted as specified in Subparagraph 3-401.11(D) (4); and 16 (d) May receive additional preparation for palatability or aesthetic, epicurean, gastronomic, or culinary purposes. 
(2)"Ready-to-eat food" includes: (a) Raw animal FOOD that is cooked as specified under § 3-401.11 or 3-401.12, or frozen as specified under § 3-402.11; (b) Raw fruits and vegetables that are washed as specified under § 3-302.15; (c) Fruits and vegetables that are cooked for hot holding, as specified under § 3-401.13; (d) All TIME/TEMPERATURE CONTROL FOR SAFETY FOOD that is cooked to the temperature and time required for the specific FOOD under Subpart 3-401 and cooled as specified under § 3-501.14; (e) Plant FOOD for which further washing, cooking, or other processing is not required for FOOD safety, and from which rinds, peels, husks, or shells, if naturally present are removed; (f) Substances derived from plants such as spices, seasonings, and sugar; (g) A bakery item such as bread, cakes, pies, fillings, or icing for which further cooking is not required for FOOD safety; (h) The following products that are produced in accordance with USDA guidelines and that have received a lethality treatment for pathogens: dry, fermented sausages, such as dry salami or pepperoni; salt-cured MEAT and POULTRY products, such as prosciutto ham, country cured ham, and Parma ham; and dried MEAT and POULTRY products, such as jerky or beef sticks; and (i) FOODS manufactured as specified in 21 CFR Part 113, Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers. 

Reduced Oxygen Packaging
(1) "Reduced oxygen packaging" means: (a) The reduction of the amount of oxygen in a PACKAGE by removing oxygen; displacing oxygen and replacing it with another gas or combination of gases; or otherwise controlling the oxygen content to a level below that normally found in the atmosphere (approximately 21% at sea level); and (b) A process as specified in Subparagraph (1)(a) of this definition that involves a FOOD for which the HAZARDS Clostridium botulinum or Listeria monocytogenes require control in the final PACKAGED form. 
(2) "Reduced oxygen packaging" includes: (a) Vacuum PACKAGING, in which air is removed from a PACKAGE of FOOD and the PACKAGE is HERMETICALLY SEALED so that a vacuum remains inside the PACKAGE; (b) Modified atmosphere PACKAGING, in which the atmosphere of a PACKAGE of FOOD is modified so that its composition is different from air but the atmosphere may change over time due to the permeability of the PACKAGING material or the respiration of the FOOD. Modified atmosphere PACKAGING includes reduction in the proportion of oxygen, total replacement of oxygen, or an increase in the proportion of other gases such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen; (c) Controlled atmosphere PACKAGING, in which the atmosphere of a PACKAGE of FOOD is modified so that until the PACKAGE is opened, its composition is different from air, and continuous control of that atmosphere is maintained, such as by using oxygen scavengers or a combination of total replacement of oxygen, nonrespiring FOOD, and impermeable PACKAGING material; (d) Cook chill PACKAGING, in which cooked FOOD is hot filled into impermeable bags which have the air expelled and are then sealed or crimped closed. The bagged FOOD is rapidly chilled and refrigerated at temperatures that inhibit the growth of psychrotrophic pathogens; or (e) Sous vide PACKAGING, in which raw or partially cooked FOOD is vacuum packaged in an impermeable bag, cooked in the bag, rapidly chilled, and refrigerated at temperatures that inhibit the growth of psychrotrophic pathogens. 

Refuse means solid waste not carried by water through the SEWAGE system. 

Regulatory Authority means the local, state, or federal enforcement body or authorized representative having jurisdiction over the FOOD ESTABLISHMENT. 

Reminder or Consumer Advisory means a written statement concerning the health RISK of consuming animal FOODS raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens. 

Re-service means the transfer of FOOD that is unused and returned by a CONSUMER after being served or sold and in the possession of the CONSUMER, to another PERSON. 

Restrict means to limit the activities of a FOOD EMPLOYEE so that there is no RISK of transmitting a disease that is transmissible through FOOD and the FOOD EMPLOYEE does not work with exposed FOOD, clean EQUIPMENT, UTENSILS, LINENS, or unwrapped SINGLE-SERVICE or SINGLE-USE ARTICLES. 

Restricted Egg means any check, dirty EGG, incubator reject, inedible, leaker, or loss as defined in 9 CFR 590. "Restricted use pesticide" means a pesticide product that contains the active ingredients specified in 40 CFR 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use, and that is limited to use by or under the direct supervision of a certified applicator. 

Risk means the likelihood that an adverse health effect will occur within a population as a result of a HAZARD in a FOOD. 

Safe Material
(1) An article manufactured from or composed of materials that may not reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in their becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any FOOD; (2) An additive that is used as specified in § 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or (3) Other materials that are not ADDITIVES and that are used in conformity with applicable regulations of the Food and Drug Administration. 

The application of cumulative heat or chemicals on cleaned FOOD-CONTACT SURFACES that, when evaluated for efficacy, is sufficient to yield a reduction of 5 logs, which is equal to a 99.999% reduction, of representative disease microorganisms of public health importance. 

Sealed means free of cracks or other openings that allow the entry or passage of moisture. 

Service Animal means an animal such as a guide dog, signal dog, or other animal individually trained to provide assistance to an individual with a disability. 

Servicing Area means an operating base location to which a mobile FOOD ESTABLISHMENT or transportation vehicle returns regularly for such things as vehicle and equipment cleaning, discharging liquid or solid wastes, refilling water tanks and ice bins, and boarding FOOD. 

Sewage means liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution and may include liquids containing chemicals in solution. 

Shellfish Control Authority 
A state, federal, foreign, tribal, or other government entity legally responsible for administering a program that includes certification of MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH harvesters and DEALERs for interstate commerce. 

Shellstock means raw, in-shell MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH. 

"Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)
Any E.coli capable of producing Shiga toxins (also called verocytotoxins). STEC infections can be asymptomatic or may result in a spectrum of illness ranging from mild non-bloody diarrhea, to hemorrhagic colitis (i.e., bloody diarrhea), to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS - a type of kidney failure). Examples of serotypes of STEC include: E. coli O157:H7; E. coli O157:NM; E. coli O26:H11; E. coli O145:NM; E. coli O103:H2; and E. coli O111:NM. STEC are sometimes referred to as VTEC (verocytotoxigenic E. coli) or as EHEC (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli). EHEC are a subset of STEC which can cause hemorrhagic colitis or HUS. "Shucked shellfish" means MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH that have one or both shells removed. "Single-service articles" means TABLEWARE, carry-out UTENSILS, and other items such as bags, containers, placemats, stirrers, straws, toothpicks, and wrappers that are designed and constructed for one time, one PERSON use after which they are intended for discard. 

Single-Use Articles
(1) "Single-use articles" means UTENSILS and bulk FOOD containers designed and constructed to be used once and discarded. 
(2) "Single-use articles" includes items such as wax paper, butcher paper, plastic wrap, formed aluminum FOOD containers, jars, plastic tubs or buckets, bread wrappers, pickle barrels, ketchup bottles, and number 10 cans which do not meet the materials, durability, strength, and cleanability specifications under §§ 4-101.11, 4-201.11, and 4-202.11 for multiuse UTENSILS. 

The process of moderating the temperature of a FOOD such as allowing a FOOD to gradually increase from a temperature of -23o C (-1°0 F) to -4°C (25°F) in preparation for deep-fat frying or to facilitate even heat penetration during the cooking of previously block-frozen FOOD such as shrimp.
(1) A FOOD-CONTACT SURFACE having a surface free of pits and inclusions with a cleanability equal to or exceeding that of (100 grit) number 3 stainless steel; (2) A nonFOOD-CONTACT SURFACE of EQUIPMENT having a surface equal to that of commercial grade hot-rolled steel free of visible scale; and (3) A floor, wall, or ceiling having an even or level surface with no roughness or projections that render it difficult to clean. 

Any eating, drinking, or serving UTENSILS for table use such as flatware including forks, knives, and spoons; hollowware including bowls, cups, serving dishes, and tumblers; and plates. 

Temperature Measuring Device
A thermometer, thermocouple, thermistor, or other device that indicates the temperature of FOOD, air, or water. 

Temporary Food Establishment
A FOOD ESTABLISHMENT that operates for a period of no more than 14 consecutive days in conjunction with a single event or celebration. 

Time/Temperature Control for Safety Food (TCS) (formerly “potentially hazardous food” or PHF)
(1) "Time/temperature control for safety food" means a FOOD that requires time/temperature control for safety (TCS) to limit pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation. 
(2) "Time/temperature control for safety food" includes: (a) An animal FOOD that is raw or heat-treated; a plant FOOD that is heattreated or consists of raw seed sprouts, cut melons, cut leafy greens, cut tomatoes or mixtures of cut tomatoes that are not modified in a way so that they are unable to support pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation, or garlic-in-oil mixtures that are not modified in a way so that they are unable to support pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation; and (b) Except as specified in Subparagraph (3)(d) of this definition, a FOOD that because of the interaction of its AW and PH values is designated as Product Assessment Required (PA) 
(3) "Time/temperature control for safety food" does not include: (a) An air-cooled hard-boiled EGG with shell intact, or an EGG with shell intact that is not hard-boiled, but has been pasteurized to destroy all viable salmonellae; (b) A FOOD in an unopened HERMETICALLY SEALED CONTAINER that is commercially processed to achieve and maintain commercial sterility under conditions of non-refrigerated storage and distribution; (c) A FOOD that because of its PH or AW value, or interaction of AW and PH values, is designated as a non-TCS FOOD in Table A or B of this definition; (d) A FOOD that is designated as Product Assessment Required (PA) in Table A or B of this definition and has undergone a Product Assessment showing that the growth or toxin formation of pathogenic microorganisms that are reasonably likely to occur in that FOOD Is precluded due to: (i) Intrinsic factors including added or natural characteristics of the FOOD such as preservatives, antimicrobials, humectants, acidulants, or nutrients, (ii) Extrinsic factors including environmental or operational factors that affect the FOOD such as packaging, modified atmosphere such as REDUCED OXYGEN PACKAGING, shelf life and use, or temperature range of storage and use, or 23 (iii) A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors; or (e) A FOOD that does not support the growth or toxin formation of pathogenic microorganisms in accordance with one of the Subparagraphs (3)(a) - (3)(d) of this definition even though the FOOD may contain a pathogenic microorganism or chemical or physical contaminant at a level sufficient to cause illness or injury. 

USDA means the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

A FOOD-CONTACT implement or container used in the storage, preparation, transportation, dispensing, sale, or service of FOOD, such as KITCHENW ARE or TABLEWARE that is multiuse, SINGLE-SERVICE, or SINGLE-USE; gloves used in contact with FOOD; temperature sensing probes of FOOD TEMPERATURE MEASURING DEVICES; and probe-type price or identification tags used in contact with FOOD. 

A written document issued by the REGULATORY AUTHORITY that authorizes a modification or waiver of one or more requirements of this Code if, in the opinion of the REGULATORY AUTHORITY, a health HAZARD or nuisance will not result from the modification or waiver. 

Vending Machine
A self-service device that, upon insertion of a coin, paper currency, token, card, or key, or by optional manual operation, dispenses unit servings of FOOD in bulk or in packages without the necessity of replenishing the device between each vending operation.

Vending Machine Location means the room, enclosure, space, or area where one or more VENDING MACHINES are installed and operated and includes the storage areas and areas on the PREMISES that are used to service and maintain the VENDING MACHINES. 


Whole-muscle, Intact Beef means whole muscle beef that is not injected, mechanically tenderized, reconstructed, or scored and marinated, from which beef steaks may be cut.

Citations in this Code to the CFR refer sequentially to the Title, Part, and Section numbers, such as 40 CFR 180.194 refers to Title 40, Part 180, Section 194. 
Citations in this Code to the CFR refer sequentially to the Title, Part, and Section numbers, such as 40 CFR 180.194 refers to Title 40, Part 180, Section 194.